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Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease. People who have diabetes are not
able to properly absorb food to be used as energy. This results in high levels of
sugar in the blood. High blood sugar and high blood glucose mean the same thing.
Participate in our diabetes education programs
Food that is eaten is broken down to be used by the body. Carbohydrates are broken
down into small sugar particles called glucose. This glucose enters the blood and
flows throughout the body to be used as energy. To move glucose through the body,
insulin is needed. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. People with diabetes
do not produce enough insulin, or their body does not use insulin properly. Some people
suffer from both. This makes the body unable to move glucose into the body's cells.
It stays in the blood stream and results in high blood glucose levels.
There are three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational. Type 2 diabetes
is the most common.
Type 1 diabetes is less common than Type 2, and can occur at any age but usually is
diagnosed in children and younger adults. In Type 1, the body does not produce insulin.
Their immune systems attack and destroy cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. If
a person has Type 1 diabetes, they will need to have an exogenous source of insulin
(such as insulin shots) each day.Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by a combination of genetics, or heredity,
and environmental factors. Experts are not clear on what environmental factors cause
Type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 (T2) diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Being overweight is strongly
linked to developing type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight.
With Type 2, your body doesn’t use insulin properly. People with type 2 diabetes build
up extra glucose in the blood because the body's cells become resistant to insulin.
The pancreas does not make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Without insulin,
sugar cannot move to the cells where it is needed for energy. Heredity and environmental
factors can affect whether type 2 diabetes develops.
And while some people can control their blood sugar levels with healthy eating and
exercise, others may need medication or insulin to help manage it.
Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. The hormones produced by the placenta
make cells more resistant to insulin. Usually, the pancreas produces enough extra
insulin to overcome insulin resistance. Sometimes the pancreas cannot keep up. Extra
glucose builds up in the bloodstream, causing gestational diabetes.
It usually goes away once the baby is born; however women who had gestational diabetes
are at higher risk for developing Type 2 later.
The term "borderline diabetic" is often used to refer to those with pre-diabetes.
People diagnosed with pre-diabetes have higher than normal blood sugar, but not high
enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. Those with pre-diabetes may get type 2 diabetes
soon or sometime in the future. They are also more likely to get heart disease or
have a stroke. People with pre-diabetes can change their eating habits and physical
activity levels to reverse pre-diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented.
Some factors increase your risk of developing pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Some
factors can be changed. Other factors, like family history and age, cannot. You are
at risk for diabetes if you: