UACES Facebook Arkansas leads $3.57M national effort to improve disease resistance in spinach
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Arkansas leads $3.57M national effort to improve disease resistance in spinach

Nov. 15, 2023

By John Lovett
University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture
Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station

Fast facts

  • Arkansas leads multi-state, molecular breeding research for fungal resistance in spinach
  • $3.57 million USDA-NIFA grant broadens research to emerging fungal pathogens
  • U.S. is the second-largest producer of spinach globally

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FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. — Versatile and dense in nutrients, spinach has become one of the nation’s most popular leafy greens. Unfortunately, spinach is also well-liked by fungal enemies on the farm.

Ainong Shi and Jim Correll in greenhouse with spinach.
SPINACH RESEARCH — Ainong Shi, left, and Jim Correll are principal and co-principal investigators, respectively, of a multi-state initiative to develop disease-resistant spinach. Shi is a vegetable breeder and associate professor of horticulture, and Correll is a Distinguished Professor of entomology and plant pathology. (U of A System Divsion of Agriculture photo)

Fusarium wilt, downy mildew, white rust and two emerging leaf spot diseases — anthracnose and Stemphylium — decrease spinach cultivation productivity, marketability and sustainability. That’s why a multi-state team of scientists led by faculty with the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture was recently awarded a $3.57 million grant by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative to expedite the development of spinach cultivars that are resistant to those fungal pathogens.

“When you have a spinach that is resistant to these pathogens, you can use less fungicide, which is better for everyone, the soil and the plant,” said Ainong Shi, vegetable breeder and associate professor of horticulture with the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, the research arm of the Division of Agriculture.

Shi is the principal investigator of the four-year project, which builds on other USDA-funded projects in Arkansas associated with developing fungal disease-resistant spinach. The previous projects focused on steps to move research and development from conventional breeding practices to molecular breeding by screening spinach cultivars for resistance on the genetic level before they are grown in field trials.

Jim Correll, Distinguished Professor of entomology and plant pathology, and horticulture post-doctoral researcher Gehendra Bhattarai are co-principal investigators for the team. They are screening 600 spinach germplasm accessions for resistance to the five diseases included in this project. An accession is a distinct, uniquely identified sample of seeds or plants maintained in a germplasm collection. The breeding lines come from the USDA National Plant Germplasm System, the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Salinas, California, and commercial cultivars and wild relatives.

Arkansas is home to the first public breeding program for spinach in the United States. The program began more than 50 years ago and has become a center for spinach research nationally.

Correll, who developed a spinach line resistant to white rust, noted that international seed companies have widely adopted Arkansas spinach germplasm. Commercially released spinach varieties and advanced breeding lines from the Arkansas program have also been used directly or as a parent in producing hybrid varieties. Spinach seed production with Arkansas germplasm occurs in Denmark, the Pacific Northwest in the United States, and New Zealand, Correll said.

The U.S. is the second-largest producer of spinach, with increasing demand bolstered by more interest in health-conscious diets, Shi noted. China is the world’s largest spinach producer. According to USDA data, U.S. receipts for spinach totaled $562,493,000 in 2022. Because of its economic and nutritional importance, Shi said the spinach industry seeks continued development of improved, locally adapted germplasm and cultivars with resistance to major pathogens. Most U.S. spinach is grown in Arizona, California and Texas.

Collaborators on the grant include the following Texas A&M AgriLife Research faculty: Carlos A. Avila, associate professor of vegetable breeding; Juan Enciso, professor in the biological and agricultural engineering department; Larry Stein, associate department head, professor and extension horticulturist; and Samuel Zapata, associate professor and extension economist.

Research collaborators also include Beiquan Mou, research geneticist in the Crop Improvement and Protection Research Unit for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in Salinas, California; Lindsey du Toit, department chair, Distinguished Professor of vegetable seed pathology and extension plant pathologist at Washington State University; Bindu Poudel-Ward, extension plant pathologist and plant diagnostician at the University of Arizona; and Susan B. Scheufele, production agriculture leader at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Hannah Zima and Gehendra Bhattarai inspect spinach plants in a greenhouse.
INSPECTION — Hannah Zima, left, program technician, and Gehendra Bhattarai, post-doctoral researcher, inspect spinach at the Harry R. Rosen Alternative Pest Control Center on the University of Arkansas campus in Fayetteville. Bhattarai is a co-principal investigator of a multi-state initiative to develop disease-resistant spinach. (U of A System Division of Agriculture photo)

As part of their research, the scientists are looking to identify genomic regions that regulate disease-resistance mechanisms. The overall goal is to generate molecular breeding tools to expedite breeding for disease resistance and support growers in producing high-quality spinach sustainably with minimum losses to diseases.

The new USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative for spinach is grant number 2023-51181-41321 and titled “Development of germplasm resources and molecular breeding tools to combat endemic and emerging diseases in U.S. spinach production.” The research team has a website dedicated to the NIFA-supported spinach projects at

To learn more about Division of Agriculture research, visit the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station website: Follow on X at @ArkAgResearch. To learn more about the Division of Agriculture, visit Follow us on X at @AgInArk. To learn about extension programs in Arkansas, contact your local Cooperative Extension Service agent or visit

About the Division of Agriculture

The University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s mission is to strengthen agriculture, communities, and families by connecting trusted research to the adoption of best practices. Through the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Cooperative Extension Service, the Division of Agriculture conducts research and extension work within the nation’s historic land grant education system.

The Division of Agriculture is one of 20 entities within the University of Arkansas System. It has offices in all 75 counties in Arkansas and faculty on five system campuses.

The University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture offers all its Extension and Research programs and services without regard to race, color, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin, religion, age, disability, marital or veteran status, genetic information, or any other legally protected status, and is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.


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Media Contact: John Lovett
U of A System Division of Agriculture
Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station
(479) 763-5929