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Searcy, Ark. –
Gardeners face many of the same challenges as farmers—only on a smaller scale. They
must contend with whatever Mother Nature throws at them, from drought to flood, scathing
heat or frigid cold, but to top it off, there are insects, diseases, and animals to
contend with. Now that the garden season is at its peak, the problems are also rising.
Gardeners should walk their gardens if not daily, then at least once a week.
Finding a problem before it becomes a big problem, can go a long way in controlling
issues. Properly identifying a problem is also important. There are insects and diseases
that can have similar symptoms. If problems are occurring over a vast group of different
types of plants, chances are it is not an insect or a disease, since most insects
and diseases tend to have more specific host plants, or at least start on one, and
then move on to others.
Deer, and other animals may not be as particular, or an improper application of a
chemical will also damage across plant species. Insects are the most diverse group
of organisms on Earth. There are over a million described species of insects. There
is not a place on earth that doesn’t have some type of insect that lives there. Not
all insects are bad. Where would be without the pollinators who provide us with crops,
or butterflies which beautify the environment. Ladybugs in both their adult and larval
stage eat aphids, and praying mantis eats both good and bad bugs. But there are bad
bugs out there, and if not controlled, they can kill or ruin your plants. Insects
can multiply rapidly in warm climates. Some years some insects are worse than others.
Many yards have been plagued by the variable oak leaf caterpillar this year—in larger
numbers than we can ever remember. Some years we have more tent caterpillars in the
spring or fall webworms in the fall. With insects that feed on large shade trees,
normally the damage is not life threatening. Repeated defoliation on young trees can
be a different story, but since they are smaller, they could be sprayed if warranted.
Some insects feed on weakened or stressed plants, while others like tender new growth
more. If you see problems on your plants, you need to start to investigate what the
culprit is and then take action. Insects feed in various ways, so identification should
start with the physical damage. Some have chewing mouthparts - like caterpillars and
grasshoppers which eat holes in the leaves or large sections of the foliage. Others
have sucking mouthparts like aphids and lacebug insects. Think of it as inserting
a straw into the leaf and then sucking out the plant juices. Instead of holes in the
leaves, the foliage is marred with little specks. When enough feeding has been going
on, the entire leaf surface is silvery or whitish where the chlorophyll has been taken
out of the leaves. Rasping mouthparts are when an insect scrapes off the top surface
of the leaf and then sucks out the sap. Mites and thrips are the culprits here. They
are small insects, so the damage is silvery in appearance, but there are no holes
in the leaves. Then there are tiny larvae of insects that feed between the surfaces
of the leaves, leaving a trail of tunnels or squiggly lines in the foliage. These
insects are called leaf miners, because they are basically mining out the sap in between
the two surfaces of the leaves. Thankfully, they usually look worse than they are,
and you can cut off the damaged leaves and be done with it.
And lastly there are boring insects—those that can bore holes in trees or in the stems
of your squash plants. For wood boring insects, they usually go after weakened trees,
but not always. Once inside, they are difficult to kill, since they construct a series
of tunnels inside so contact sprays are not effective. Squash vine borer adults are
a clear winged moth that resembles a wasp. The adult female lays eggs near the base
of the squash plant. When the larvae hatch, they bore into the stem of the squash
plant and tunnel through, killing the plants quickly. If you have holes or missing
chunks of foliage in your leaves, try to find what is feeding. Sometimes you can easily
spot the culprit, and sometimes you must investigate. Many insects use camouflage
to mask themselves or help them blend in.
There are some common insects that we see annually on certain plants. If you are growing
hardy hibiscus, the mallow sawfly may turn the leaves into lace. Cabbage worms can
do the same to members of the cabbage family, and the tomato hornworm can feed on
a tomato plant and destroy it quickly. Corn left unprotected is usually attacked by
the corn earworm. Flea beetles are common on eggplants, and slugs love hostas, so
start by looking for the most common complaint. When grasshoppers hit, it seems like
the plague of locusts—they feed on many different plants and the Japanese beetle is
the bane of many a gardener in the northern tier of the state. Bagworms attack junipers
and cedars first and construct their protective sack out of the plant they are feeding
on. If you can’t find what is out there, try using traps or baits to spot them, so
you know how to control them. Know which are good caterpillars and which are bad.
Many gardeners grow parsley and fennel to attract caterpillars and butterflies, so
don’t kill them. Learn to recognize the larvae of the good and the bad bugs.
Aphids are the rabbits of the insect world. These small insects give birth to living
young, and when conditions are right, those newborns begin propagating as well. They
can be green, yellow, or black in color and often congregate along the stems or tips
of tender new growth. They suck sap out and give off a sticky substance called honeydew.
Where honeydew lands—car windows, patio furniture or plants, a black sooty mold can
form on the leaves. Aphids attack flowers, vegetables, shrubs and even trees. Think
about parking your car under a large shade tree. That sticky residue is probably the
droppings of aphids feeding on the tree foliage. Other sucking insects that give off
honeydew include white flies and scale. Whiteflies commonly attack gardenias. It looks
like specks of white dandruff flying off the plant. Then the foliage can be covered
in the black sooty mold.
Whiteflies are also an issue on some flowering tropicals and can get on vegetables
and other ornamentals. Scale insects and mealy bugs are also common on a wide variety
of plants. Camellias commonly get tea scale, while mealy bugs are soft bodied scales
that attack on the underside of the foliage and in the joints where leaves are attached
to the stems. Golden euonymus is frequently attacked by the euonymus scale. Scale
insects are not going to kill a plant overnight, but left unchecked, they will multiply
and gradually weaken a plant. Scale insects come in all sizes and shapes from tiny
white and black tea and euonymus scale to the hard armored scales and the white oyster
scales. The hard outer coating protects the insect inside, so typically some type
of systemic approach is needed.
Whether your garden has insect or disease problems, practice good integrated pest
management practices. Give your plants what they need to grow—proper plant selection
for your site, then the right cultural practices including water, fertilizer and pruning.
Monitor your garden regularly. Decide how much damage you are willing to live with.
When those thresholds are met, take action. Look at what is available to control the
pest—physical barriers, sprays of water, pruning out damaged plants, or organic or
non-organic sprays. Spraying is usually the last resort. But if you do spray, make
sure that what you are using is labeled to control your pest and that you are applying
it at the recommended rate.
Many home gardeners think that if a little bit is good, a lot will do better, and
that isn’t the case. Gardening can be challenging, but the end results outweigh the
challenges. If you have problems in your garden and you don’t know the cause, take
a good sample to your local county extension agent. Good photos are also beneficial.
Once you can identify the problem, you are on the road to solving it.
The University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture is an equal opportunity/equal
access/affirmative action institution. For more information you can contact your local
county extension service, you can also follow Sherri Sanders on Facebook @UADA.WhiteCountyAgriculture
By Sherri Sanders County Extension Agent - AgricultureThe Cooperative Extension ServiceU of A System Division of Agriculture
Media Contact: Sherri Sanders County Extension Agent - AgricultureU of A Division of AgricultureCooperative Extension Service2400 Old Searcy Landing Road Searcy AR 72143 (501) 268-5394 firstname.lastname@example.org
The Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service is an equal opportunity/equal access/affirmative
action institution. If you require a reasonable accommodation to participate or need
materials in another format, please contact your County Extension office (or other
appropriate office) as soon as possible. Dial 711 for Arkansas Relay. The Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to all eligible persons
regardless of race, color, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin,
religion, age, disability, marital or veteran status, genetic information, or any
other legally protected status, and is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.